Thursday, January 21, 2010

The Rakhine Kingdom

Most of the Myanmar historians who have written and published quite a number of Books and pamphlets relate that the Rakhaings were the kanyans, a branch of Tibeto Burmans who migrated from the Central Asia along with the Pyus and Thets. Some of them state that Rakhaings were a branch of Myanmar who wandered away from the region now honour as Kansu in Western China. Most of them try to say that the Rakhaings received their culture and religion from Pagan. These statements are indeed misleading and incorrect. Let us now repute these misrepresentations by putting forward certain important extracts taken from manuscripts written in English by late U Chan Toon of Sittwe. Here are the true facts regarding the origin of the Rakhaings, their Kingdom and their civilization, which spreads to the East across the Yomas.

The migration of people from Central Asia into Myanmar is a British conception and the development of Myanmar dependent on Pagan is a Modern Myanmar conception.
A Contortion of history
There is a pamphlet published by the Burma Translation Society which relates about the migration of people from Central Asia to Myanmar and as to how the development of the whole of Myanmar of today is dependent on Pagan. The migration of people from Central Asia into Myanmar is a British conception and the development of Myanmar dependent on Pagan is a Modern Myanmar conception. This pamphlet is contortion of History. It is therefore for the Rakhaings to prove that it is wrong. Pyu History will prove that it is wrong. It is for the Mons to prove that it is wrong. It is for the Shans to prove that it is wrong.

Rakhaing Mythological history
When writing history, mythological history will also have to be written for that will convey ideas of migrations. The Rakhaing history will here be related in brief showing when contest was made with Pagan with dates. This will show that Pagan is very recent and could not thus influence the other four Kingdoms. The Rakhaing mythological history relates about the first formation of kingdom by Maha Thamada was called Thagewon, and the Thagewon Kings took great pride in upholding correct principles when governing their subjects. Gautama Buddha was born in the Thagewon Khattreya Family and the Rakhaings of old have taken pride in their country being governed by Thagewon Kings from mythological times. Mythological history states that the seat of Government was first at Ramawady or Ramapura, the Ramree Island. Ramawady is an Indian word, Ram meaning God. Hence Ramawady would mean land of God. History then relates about the formation of 16 Provinces in India during the reign of Wara Aza Raza. There 16 Provinces which become Kingdom were formed before the time of Kakuthan Buddha. In the course of time 85 smaller Kingdoms were formed. Hence the whole of India is known in ancient times as the land of 101 kings. This came to be called Myitzima Daytha ending in the East at the mountain called Rakhaing Yomas today. The present day conception of Rakhapura being in Myanmar is wrong geographically, the Yomas bring the proof. Rakhapura was included in Myanmar on British conquest for administrative purposes. In ancient times Rakhapura and Ahyusapura were under one Government. Rakhapura included the whole of modern Bengal. Bengal was referred to as 12 Bunga towns, to capital being mauk-thu-za meaning the food of Mauk. The Rakhaings are still known as mauk (Mog) in Bengal.

Wathudaywa-About B.C. 4500.
Wathudaywa and his 9 brothers after conquering the whole of India lastly conquered Dwarawady, the present Thandwe area. For his greatness, the people of India worshipped him as a god, Krishna. We, Rakhaings, however, revere Wathudaywa, as one of our great kings. On the death of Wathudaywa and his 9 brothers at Dwarawady through very unfortunate circumstances, the sister of Wathudaywa, Asiana Daywee and Bramana Poona migrated to Waythali and Bramana Poona was made King by the people of Waythali (Vesali) for his great learning. 6 Kings descended from Bramana Raza and 16 Kings of the Tharaban Dynasty ruled over the country with Waythali as the Capital. Waythali came to an end when the last King Brama Theida met his death at the hand of Cannibals led by Nga Sat Dan.

Marayu B.C. 3341 to 3279.
Marayu the son of Arzuna the ascetic and Einda Maru became king in B.C. 3341 after defeating and extermination the cannibals. Marayu founded the Capital of Danyawaddy on becoming King. Danyawaddy is a town and not a province as thought by many today. Arzuna was King of Kapilawat before he took the life of wandering Ascetic. Indian historians traced his wanderings as far as Manipore, from genealogical tree. From Gautama Buddha we learn that the class in which Gautama Buddha was born is related to the clan that Arzuna belonged to.

Kan Raza Gree B.C. 1523 to 1486.
54 successors of Marayu reigned over the country till we come to the reign of Kan Raza Gree. On the death of the refugee from India, Abei Raza at Tagoung the two sons Kan Raza Gree, the elder, and Kan Raza Nge, the younger, had differences about succession. Kan Raza Nge succeeded his father's place and hence Kan Raza Gree accompanied by his followers migrated southward. He followed the course of the Irrawaddy, branched out towards the Chindwin and finally arrived at Kyaukpandaung over land. Min Nge Pyaw Hla had been murdered by his Ministers at Danyawaddy and succeeded by 3 Ministers, one acting for eight months, one acting for 2 months and the 3rd acting for 6 months. When the third was dethroned Kan Raza Gree became King. He took as Queen Saw Pyinya Naree of Rakhaing Royality and governed from Kyauk-pan-daung for 24 years, and finally shifted to the old capital, Danyawaddy. This is a case of claim to the throne through the female line, Saw Pyinya Naree.

King Sanda Thuria B.C. 596 to 544.
This is the most important reign in the whole history of Rakhapura and or it is during this reign the Gautama Buddha visited Danyawaddy and at the request by King Sanda Thuria left behind the Mahamuni Image. The image is not an ordinary one but due to the blessing given by Gautama Buddha after completion was addressed as "My Representative" by Gautama Buddha. Civilisation progresses in most countries after the adoption of a Religion. Before the adoption of Christianity most countries were in the dark ages in Europe. Religion brings about mental development by a study of the unknown. (Buddhism was the first religion to appear in the world, this was followed by Christianity and lastly by Mohammedanism).

Since the reign of King Sanda Thuriya, Rakhaing became scared country and it became the heart of Buddhism. Fore over 2300 years Mahamuni, the image of the founder of the Religion had remained on Sirigutta hill (the most holy object in the world).

We find that Buddhism was adopted by the Pyus at Tharaykhatra (Pyay/Prome) from the time of Dwetabaung Min, the proof being the 3 or 4 peculiar shaped Pagodas near Pyay. Dwetabaung was King about 100 years after Gautama Buddha passed away to Nirvana. Where could this land locked area received Buddhism from Dwarawaddy the adjacent territory. That the Pyus came over to Dwarawaddy for receiving religious training later events will prove. There was a golden standing image of Buddha at Dwarawaddy is stated in History. The Pyus made constant visits of pilgrimage to this scared image.

Buddhism was introduced into Geylon by the son and daughter of Emperor Asoka acting as missionaries. Most learned sayadaws give the exact date as being 201 years after the Gautama Buddha passed away to Nirvana. After being established in Ceylon, Buddhism spread to the Mon Kingdom. This may have taken place 300 years after Gautama Buddha attained nirvana. It is quite possible that Buddhism was spread from Ceylon or Southern India to Siam (Thailand) and indo-China.

Upper Myanmar got converted to Buddhism during the reign of king Anawrata of Pagan A.D. 1002 to 1035 (Kawza to 397). Anawrata got interested in Buddhism due to the arrival of a monk from Thaton by name of Shin Arahan. Although Anawrata was interested in Buddhism, he did not have the Buddhist scriptures. He had thus to wage a war against the king of Thaton, Manuha, in order to obtain the Buddhist scriptures. Anawrata not only received the Buddhist scriptures by waging a War, but also at the same time brought King Manuha as prisoner to Pagan. It has therefore to be considered as the Pagodas at pagan were designed and constructed by the followers of Manuha from Thaton.

Waythali-A.D. 310 to 776.
On Maha Sandra coming to the throne in A.D. 310 he had shifted from Danyawaddy to the more accessible place Waythali. Danyawaddy had been the capital for a total period of 3651 years, from the reign of Marayu in B.C. 3341 to A.D. 310. The Rakhaing came to Zenith of power during the reign of 9 Sandra Kings of Waythali from A.D. 310 to 752 or for a total period of 442 years. The power was due to the very pious King Maha Sandra receiving from Theekra Min Cellestial Spear, the Cellestial Horse and the Cellestial Ruby Ring similar to Wathudaywa. There are problems which we cannot understand today.

During the reign of 9 Sandra Kings of Waythali, all the surrounding countries including Bago, Tharaykhetra, Mogaung, Monyin, and Tagaung paid tributes to the kings of Waythali. Paying tributes meant the civilization at Waythali spread to the surrounding countries. It would therefore not be surprising if the people of upper Myanmar learnt how to read and write the Rakhaing characters of Ka, Kha, Ga, etc. We today are learning the British alphabets of A, B, C, due to the British rule of 118 years and still continue to learn the language after the British had left. This must have taken place in Upper Myanmar. This surmise would by quite correct for the Burmese pronunciation of words is not in accordance with spelling. The Burmese cannot pronounce "R" raraik because they speak from the tip of the tongue while as the pronunciation of the ra-raik is only correct when the tongue touches the palate. Hence words containing ra-raik can be correctly spelt by the Rakhaing on account of the correct pronunciation, while as the spelling would go wrong when the incorrect Burmese pronunciation is used.

We today speak English with wrong pronunciation as well as a wrong accent, because it is an adopted language. The same applies to the Rakhaing and the Myanmar language. We find that the Chinese cannot pronounce words spelt with "R" correctly while as the people of India can pronounce words spelt with "R" correctly. In fact words containing "R" is greatly stressed in India acting. This will show what civilizations had influence in Upper Myanmar before the adoption of the Rakhaing language, the Yomas being the boundry. We find that Indian Kaw, Khaw, Gaw, Gaw is identical with the Rakhaing Ka, Kha, Ga, Ga, Gha. This identity is proof that one is derived from the other although the Rakhaing alter the character afterwards. To state that all writings started from Pagan came into existence only in A.D. 1002 is incorrect.

When the last of the Sandra Kings, Sula Sandra, in A.D. 752, went up to Tagaung or Thaundwe in order to cure his headache, he went up the Ayeyawaddy by boat. On his journey the Kings of Bago, Tharaykhetra, Mogaung, Monyin, Tagaung paid their respect to Sula Sandra. There is no mention of Pagan. History is correct, because Pagan had not yet came to existence. Whenthe King was well received at Thaundwe, he forgot or did not make arrangements for his return. The Ministers therefore recited a verse, accompanied by Duria and this reminded the King that it was time to return. We should preserve and publish the verses sung by the boat crew on the journey up the Ayeyawaddy is utilising what Ka to Ah stands for. "A" for apple. "D" for dog is only recently introduced in the British way of teaching. The problem has been thought out during the reign of the Sandras. The Rakhaing Kingdom declined after the death of Sula Sandra who was shipwrecked on the return journey fro Tagaung.

Rakha Oung


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